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nbella91
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Physical simulation of the space engine

17 Jun 2021 17:09

I'm sure you've looked at Kip Thorne's paper on rendering the Kerr black hole for the movie Interstellar
And for the movie they still settled on a similar rendering technique to what SE uses, non-Kerr and nonrotating.
I believe, according to Kip Thorne's book "The Science of Interstellar", they did stay with Kerr for the movie but reduced the spin from something like 99.9999% the maximum possible spin rate from the initial simulations to only 60%.  They also ignored the doppler shift of the accretion disk in the movie.  The paper seems to back up this statement (a/M=0.6).  Both decisions were motivated by trying to not confuse the audience too much though I would have loved to see a full IMAX quality image at a/M=0.999 and doppler shift!
 
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Physical simulation of the space engine

24 Jun 2021 04:34

If we are talking about fiction, it should be understandable to ordinary people. Of course, if you understand a little more than an ordinary viewer or reader, then you want a more complete immersion in the topic. But for an uninformed person, this information is enough.
 
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Physical simulation of the space engine

29 Jun 2021 14:20

I'm sure you've looked at Kip Thorne's paper on rendering the Kerr black hole for the movie Interstellar
And for the movie they still settled on a similar rendering technique to what SE uses, non-Kerr and nonrotating.
I believe, according to Kip Thorne's book "The Science of Interstellar", they did stay with Kerr for the movie but reduced the spin from something like 99.9999% the maximum possible spin rate from the initial simulations to only 60%.  They also ignored the doppler shift of the accretion disk in the movie.  The paper seems to back up this statement (a/M=0.6).  Both decisions were motivated by trying to not confuse the audience too much though I would have loved to see a full IMAX quality image at a/M=0.999 and doppler shift!
You can tell that Gargantua isn't a Schwarzschild black hole as Doc suggests just from the shape of the event horizon.
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Physical simulation of the space engine

13 Feb 2022 04:28

[font=tahoma, Microsoft YaHei, 微软雅黑, 宋体, Malgun Gothic, sans-serif]Why can the game contain so many stars?[font=tahoma, Microsoft YaHei, 微软雅黑, 宋体, Malgun Gothic, sans-serif]Are they generated in real time?[/font][/font]
 
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Physical simulation of the space engine

14 Feb 2022 06:47

Yes they are procedurally generated.
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Re: Physical simulation of the space engine

27 May 2022 21:43

About a year ago, I asked a question regarding what goes into the gravitational lensing (specifically around the black holes) we see in spaceengine and got some helpful answers.  Now I return with another lensing question!  What goes into the warp drive lensing effect we see in the simulation?  I've never seen warp drive lensing anywhere other than here.  It looks more or less what I would expect given how a warp drive is supposed to work but, again, I can't find a lot of reference material to compare it to.  Is the effect seen in the simulation based off the Alcubierre metric and is there any literature out there anyone knows about that gives a detail description of lensing around a warp drive?  Any insight would be greatly appreciated!
 
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Re: Physical simulation of the space engine

28 May 2022 07:36

About a year ago, I asked a question regarding what goes into the gravitational lensing (specifically around the black holes) we see in spaceengine and got some helpful answers.  Now I return with another lensing question!  What goes into the warp drive lensing effect we see in the simulation?  I've never seen warp drive lensing anywhere other than here.  It looks more or less what I would expect given how a warp drive is supposed to work but, again, I can't find a lot of reference material to compare it to.  Is the effect seen in the simulation based off the Alcubierre metric and is there any literature out there anyone knows about that gives a detail description of lensing around a warp drive?  Any insight would be greatly appreciated!
Current warp shader only looks accurate when viewed from the side. Next major update will use the actual metric to calculate the warping and will look much different.
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Re: Physical simulation of the space engine

28 May 2022 10:02

About a year ago, I asked a question regarding what goes into the gravitational lensing (specifically around the black holes) we see in spaceengine and got some helpful answers.  Now I return with another lensing question!  What goes into the warp drive lensing effect we see in the simulation?  I've never seen warp drive lensing anywhere other than here.  It looks more or less what I would expect given how a warp drive is supposed to work but, again, I can't find a lot of reference material to compare it to.  Is the effect seen in the simulation based off the Alcubierre metric and is there any literature out there anyone knows about that gives a detail description of lensing around a warp drive?  Any insight would be greatly appreciated!
Current warp shader only looks accurate when viewed from the side. Next major update will use the actual metric to calculate the warping and will look much different.
Very interesting!  The side view was actually the view I was most interested in.  The front of the bubble appears to behave like "normal" lensing due to the space curving "inward" (negatively).  The back of the bubble curves outward (positively) which I don't think I have ever seen outward lensing before but it seems to make sense given how a warp bubble is supposed to work.  If the warp bubble were to pass in front of a distant star from this side view, the front of the bubble would make the star appear brighter due to the negative curvature and the back of the bubble seems to briefly decrease the brightness of the star.
 
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Re: Physical simulation of the space engine

29 May 2022 11:03

About a year ago, I asked a question regarding what goes into the gravitational lensing (specifically around the black holes) we see in spaceengine and got some helpful answers.  Now I return with another lensing question!  What goes into the warp drive lensing effect we see in the simulation?  I've never seen warp drive lensing anywhere other than here.  It looks more or less what I would expect given how a warp drive is supposed to work but, again, I can't find a lot of reference material to compare it to.  Is the effect seen in the simulation based off the Alcubierre metric and is there any literature out there anyone knows about that gives a detail description of lensing around a warp drive?  Any insight would be greatly appreciated!



SE has been using the Alcubierre metric for inspiration for many years now, and the newest update will be even more accurate

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Re: Physical simulation of the space engine

02 Jun 2022 01:20

Out of curiosity, what would the tidal effects be for a bystander watching a relatively nearby warp bubble pass by?  Would a craft using a warp drive leave a wake of shattered debris of everything it passes?
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Re: Physical simulation of the space engine

02 Jun 2022 12:28

Given the size of the ship, the tidal forces around the bubble in some areas may be severe, but generally if it functions like White suggests, pulses that soften space, then it would just displace objects not rip them apart.  Under the original Alcubierre notion of a very clean sharp bubble, that would rip and tear anything coming into contact with it.
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Re: Physical simulation of the space engine

05 Jun 2022 04:39

Under the original Alcubierre notion of a very clean sharp bubble, that would rip and tear anything coming into contact with it.
Protective force field!
 
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Re: Physical simulation of the space engine

09 Jun 2022 11:08

Given the size of the ship, the tidal forces around the bubble in some areas may be severe, but generally if it functions like White suggests, pulses that soften space, then it would just displace objects not rip them apart.  Under the original Alcubierre notion of a very clean sharp bubble, that would rip and tear anything coming into contact with it.
Could something similar to an Alcubierre drive be used to create protective forcefield, or isolate something from the gravity of a nearby object and allow it to float freely without accelerating against gravity?
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Re: Physical simulation of the space engine

02 Apr 2023 22:58

I'm interested in the new gravitational lensing model used in Space Engine.  I know it's based on the Kerr metric and the fact that it can be solved in real time still amazes to me.  However, I have noticed some slight differences with the lensing effect produced by rapidly spinning black holes in Space Engine compared with the simulations produced by Double Negative for the movie Interstellar.  Specifically, I have noticed that in their simulation, the Einstein Radius (the kind of lensing ring around the black hole) is more lopsided than what we see in Space Engine.  Both simulations produce lopsided looking black holes but theirs appears to be more lopsided (both the black hole and the EInstein Radius).  I have tried in Space Engine to produce a similar looking lensing effect as seen in Double Negative's video here: https://cfn-live-content-bucket-iop-org ... DWEfeYA%3D but so far I have returned empty handed.  I'm curious as to if there are any theories as to what the discrepancy is if there is any at all (could just be how Double Negative is visualizing their black hole since some of their animations show an equirectangular projection).  If anyone disagrees that there is a difference between the two, feel free as I am only judging this by eye.
 
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Re: Physical simulation of the space engine

04 Apr 2023 14:18

I'm interested in the new gravitational lensing model used in Space Engine.  I know it's based on the Kerr metric and the fact that it can be solved in real time still amazes to me.  However, I have noticed some slight differences with the lensing effect produced by rapidly spinning black holes in Space Engine compared with the simulations produced by Double Negative for the movie Interstellar.  Specifically, I have noticed that in their simulation, the Einstein Radius (the kind of lensing ring around the black hole) is more lopsided than what we see in Space Engine.  Both simulations produce lopsided looking black holes but theirs appears to be more lopsided (both the black hole and the EInstein Radius).  I have tried in Space Engine to produce a similar looking lensing effect as seen in Double Negative's video here: https://cfn-live-content-bucket-iop-org ... DWEfeYA%3D but so far I have returned empty handed.  I'm curious as to if there are any theories as to what the discrepancy is if there is any at all (could just be how Double Negative is visualizing their black hole since some of their animations show an equirectangular projection).  If anyone disagrees that there is a difference between the two, feel free as I am only judging this by eye.
The lopsidedness depends on the spin of each individual black hole. If you select a black hole and edit it via the planet editor (or make a new one from scratch using SE's scripting), you can set the spin to a custom value. The black hole in the link looks square because of the projection, as you mentioned. Double Negative's test render also does not distort the stars properly, as each star is represented as a 0D dot rather than a 2D distortable graphic - it is only a test render and definitely does not use the same techniques as the final render in Interstellar (in which a star directly behind Gargantua would become a ring, unlike the test black hole)

SpaceEngine's renderer is based on the actual metric. Some accuracy is lost by default because the shaders are otherwise taxing on the GPU, but you can increase the accuracy in the settings using "gravitational lensing precision":
Image
The lag is a fair bit more noticeable than the inaccuracies introduced to remedy it, though. Volumetric objects resolution will affect how blurry accretion discs and nebulae are.
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