The energy of a single photon of light is inversely proportional to its wavelength, with the visible region of the spectrum having less energy per photon than the ultraviolet region, and more than the infrared region. The energy of the visible spectrum increases from the red wavelengths through the blue and violet. Ultraviolet light, which has more energy than blue light, does not support photosynthesis. If it did reach the earth’s surface, ultraviolet light would be energetic enough to break carbon-carbon bonds. The bond-breaking process would lead to a net loss of fixed carbon as biomolecules were broken apart. Fortunately, the ozone layer in the atmosphere absorbs enough UV radiation to prevent this from occurring.
Not all wavelengths of light can support photosynthesis. The photosynthetic action spectrum depends on the type of accessory pigments present. For example, in green plants, the action spectrum resembles the absorption spectrum for chlorophylls and carotenoids with peaks for violet-blue and red light. In red algae, the action spectrum overlaps with the absorption spectrum of phycobilins for red blue-green light, which allows these algae to grow in deeper waters that filter out the longer wavelengths used by green plants.
In the light reactions, one molecule of the pigment chlorophyll absorbs one photon and loses one electron. This electron is passed to a modified form of chlorophyll called pheophytin, which passes the electron to a quinone molecule, allowing the start of a flow of electrons down an electron transport chain that leads to the ultimate reduction of NADP to NADPH. In addition, this creates a proton gradient across the chloroplast membrane; its dissipation is used by ATP synthase for the concomitant synthesis of ATP. The chlorophyll molecule regains the lost electron from a water molecule through a process called photolysis, which releases a dioxygen (O2) molecule. The overall equation for the light-dependent reactions under the conditions of non-cyclic electron flow in green plants is:
2 H2O + 2 NADP+ + 3 ADP + 3 Pi + light → 2 NADPH + 2 H+ + 3 ATP + O2
Molecules that have double bonds alternating with single bonds have a sort of resonance (conjugation) that allows electrons to move more freely over a large portion of the molecule (sort of like how metals have more free moving electrons). This ability of electrons to move freely lowers the energy difference between the HOMO and the LUMO (somehow) which allows photons of lower energy (and therefore lower wavelengths) to make electrons jump to higher energy levels. The rule of thumb tends to be the more conjugated pi bonds the lower the wavelength required to make this energy level jump occur. In chlorophyll specifically, there is a porphyrin-metal system at the center of the molecule which causes there to be several different HOMO-LUMO gaps which result in a major absorption peak in the blue light range (the soret band) and several peaks in the red range (q bands).
Why did evolution end up doing it this way? Probably because it is the simplest, and even if not the most efficient, it is still 90% efficient at moving elections. Almost all the photons that fall on the chloroplast are absorbed and can provide energy for synthesis. One hypothesis I have read is that the early dominance of Archaea (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaea
) with green dominant absorption of solar radiation lead to the red/blue chlorophyl development as it allowed them to coexist without competing for the same resources.
Perhaps there is a different way to move electrons, but to me it seems the physics of reality and how chemicals work lead to the conclusion, you will most likely find vegetative materials that use sunlight as energy, as appearing green, no matter what the host star color looks.
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