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Gnargenox
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### Planets with potentially breathable atmospheres

I see now, and yes I wondered if that was what PlutonianEmpire meant. That is certainly one of the most discussed methods of starting the process of terraforming Mars. There are also many other proposals about how to make it breathable for humans using various methods, all only limited by money, imagination and the desire to do it. I hope this answers your question properly.

Current conditions in the Martian atmosphere at less than 1 kPa of atmospheric pressure, are significantly below the Armstrong limit of 6 kPa where very low pressure causes exposed bodily liquids such as saliva, tears, and the liquids wetting the alveoli within the lungs to boil away. Without a pressure suit, no amount of breathable oxygen delivered by any means will sustain life for more than a few minutes.

----------------------------------

There are 3 key steps into terraforming Mars that must work and need to last if we want to walk around a talk and stuff.

#1) Building up the magnetosphere:
From about 1500 nanotesla up to around 65000 nanotesla. You could also simply ignore that and realize any atmosphere you do add would slowly be blown away by the solar winds, but it would be a VERY slow loss. By then we might have the ability to mitigate the moderate atmosphere loss from solar wind in other ways.

Nukes have been suggested to be dropped in holes drilled all the way through the crust in hopes of melting the core and restart an internal dynamo of molten iron thereby creating a large enough magnetic field, planet wide. Another misuse of nuclear power is Elon Musk's desire to nuke the poles to speed up the pace of terraforming but I think it would serve a better purpose to propel rockets to Saturn and collect water from the icy rings. Or you could simply crash one of Jupiter's moon into Mars.

Another point is the northern hemisphere of Mars is much less magnetic than the southern hemisphere. If Mars at one point in the past had an internal dynamo like Earth's, rocks that formed on Mars before the dynamo shut down will remain magnetized. Any rocks that formed after the dynamo shut down, or that were heated above their Curie point (the temperature at which their magnetic domains randomize, which differs from mineral to mineral, but which is in the ballpark of a few hundred degrees Celsius) after the dynamo shut down, will not be magnetized.

Perhaps a glancing blow from a truly gigantic impact stripped away most of the northern hemisphere's crust, and since nothing is perfectly spherical, temperature differences in the crust allowed the dynamo to continue but only affecting the thicker crust areas in the south. That shows Mars could indeed lose it's atmosphere to solar wind while still having an active core and magnetic field on one half of the planet.

My favorite way would be to build a giant planet-encircling electromagnet. First, string a protective pipeline all the way around the planet; around the equator is good, but any great circle path will do, so pick whichever your surveyors and civil engineers say is most convenient, then fill the pipe with a continuous loop of superconductor cable with a correct number of windings to meet whatever magnetosphere standards you have. You will need to do this multiple times to get a high enough value of current.

Build solar panels on top of the pipeline to provide power. Once it's charged up, the superconducting coils won't require a power source to keep going (since they are, after all, made of superconductor), but you need a way to get them going in the first place, and after wards the solar panels can be used to power other things like lights and equipment for the convenience of maintenance workers.

#2) Building up the atmosphere:
Mars's CO2 atmosphere has about 1% the pressure of the Earth's at sea level and currently has a mass of 2.5 × 10^13 kilograms. This is about 1% the mass of Mt Everest. The planet Mars itself has a mass of about 11% of the Earth. If we could raise the mass of the planet it would naturally increase the mass of the atmosphere. However, we would need to find 8 additional Mars sized objects floating around nearby and crash them into Mars, plus adding mass to a nearby planet is a little tricky.

Disturbing the current orbital resonance from adding that much mass to Mars could kick Earth into the sun. One solution is you could divert some of the denser asteroids from the asteroid belt nearby and calculate their momentum such that there is no net gain in the orbital velocity of Mars when they impact its surface, sort of "driving" it along with asteroid impacts as it builds mass. I'm pretty sure this would turn the surface of Mars into a boiling sea of melted rock though and humans are not patient enough to let a cake cool down out of the oven.

Since the mass of the planet is probably harder to change than the mass of the atmosphere, we'd need to increase the mass of the atmosphere by about 200 times in order to even get close to the air pressure in the Himalayas, which as you know is way less than sea-level. So good luck getting 2 Mt Everest's worth of gas onto Mars.

It is estimated that there is sufficient CO2 ice in the regolith and the south polar cap to form a 30 to 60 kPa atmosphere if it is released by planetary warming. The reappearance of liquid water on the Martian surface would add to the warming effects and atmospheric density, but the lower gravity of Mars requires 2.6 times Earth's column air mass to obtain the optimum 100 kPa pressure at the surface. Additional volatile gases to increase the atmosphere's density must be supplied from an external source, such as redirecting several massive asteroids containing ammonia (NH3) as a source of nitrogen.

If Mars atmospheric pressure could rise above 19 kPa then a pressure suit would not be required. Visitors would only need to wear a mask that supplied 100% oxygen under positive pressure. A further increase to 24 kPa of atmospheric pressure would allow a simple mask supplying pure oxygen. This might look similar to mountain climbers who venture into pressures below 37 kPa, also called the death zone where an insufficient amount of bottled oxygen has often resulted in hypoxia with fatalities

We still need that 20% of O2 you spoke about. So next, set up solar panels that will use the energy they generate to break the Martian CO2 atmosphere into carbon and oxygen. But CO2 is really stable and carbon needs something to bond with, so where are you going to come up with a material to serve as your carbon sink? Plants, and Algae take care of the carbon levels. Drive a few ice chunks from Saturn's rings into an area to create freshwater oceans. The water will evaporate and help thicken the atmosphere. We all know how important Water Vapor is, right? At this point Water Vapor in the air would be close to that on Earth, so no need to worry about desiccation or pushing aside Oxygen in your lungs because temperature and air pressure would be normal. Now the additional 20% O2 you requested is in the Martian air!

#3) Raising the temperature:
This is easily accomplished by importing 40 million metric tons of ammonia or hydrocarbons. A personal favorite is using Sulfur Hexafluoride, excellent because it is non-toxic & inert and 6 times heavier than oxygen. What's really cool is it makes your voice sound like a vocalist for a Death Metal band, kinda the reverse of what helium does. It too can be mined from the mantel of Mars. Bringing in large amounts of ammonia from comets will serve as additional greenhouse gases to melt the polar ice caps, again pumping up the weight of the air.

Reducing the albedo of the Martian surface would also make more efficient use of incoming sunlight. This could be done by spreading dark dust from Mars's moons, Phobos and Deimos, which are among the blackest bodies in the Solar System and they are already on a collision course with the surface in a million years or so; or by introducing dark extremophile microbial life forms such as lichens, algae and bacteria. The ground would then absorb more sunlight, warming the atmosphere.

So now we have the right gases, the right pressure and the right temperature!
Lets set up camp and name it PlutonianEmpire!
Hopefully I can smoke this cigarette on Mars without it burning up like a primer cord!

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Gnargenox
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### Planets with potentially breathable atmospheres

Here's another close one;
RS 3565-4-6-62300-99 2

As far as Cold Deserts go, it is probably from the OTHER side of the spectrum of "close calls", as it is a fairly big Super-earth at 4.3 times the mass of Earth and has a large portion of Hydrocarbons (Acetylene, Methane, Ethane, Ethylene & Propane) in the atmosphere.

I never remember to take note of the host Stars, as only recently have I tried searching based on spectral types. I seem to have as good of luck with G-types as much as I do with K-types. The dull red M-types I almost always avoid because the landscapes are not pretty pastels lol.

I've got a few spread-sheets with alot of HIP named planets with their sun types and only the predominate gas in the atmosphere. Only a few are interesting enough to check breathablitiy, even though I remember they all failed.

So.., on this monster planet Oxygen is at a comfortable 1 atm, the 12% CO2 will cause you to puke until you pass out after a few minutes and die, but there is NO Sulfur Dioxide and you would only get conjunctivitis from the H2S. The ESI is low, it has a nice orbital period with a half long day, it rolls around it's orbit on its side like Uranus at an 85 degree tilt, and Gravity is a bit higher as is the atmospheric pressure. Oh, and it a bone chilling -145F. Burrrrr.

Hopefully someday I will find a planet I can smoke a cigarette on...

I think the view of the two merging Galaxies in the background is pretty amazing, especially from the surface at night time.
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PlutonianEmpire
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### Planets with potentially breathable atmospheres

Gnargenox wrote:
I see now, and yes I wondered if that was what PlutonianEmpire meant. That is certainly one of the most discussed methods of starting the process of terraforming Mars. There are also many other proposals about how to make it breathable for humans using various methods, all only limited by money, imagination and the desire to do it. I hope this answers your question properly.

Current conditions in the Martian atmosphere at less than 1 kPa of atmospheric pressure, are significantly below the Armstrong limit of 6 kPa where very low pressure causes exposed bodily liquids such as saliva, tears, and the liquids wetting the alveoli within the lungs to boil away. Without a pressure suit, no amount of breathable oxygen delivered by any means will sustain life for more than a few minutes.

----------------------------------

There are 3 key steps into terraforming Mars that must work and need to last if we want to walk around a talk and stuff.

#1) Building up the magnetosphere:
From about 1500 nanotesla up to around 65000 nanotesla. You could also simply ignore that and realize any atmosphere you do add would slowly be blown away by the solar winds, but it would be a VERY slow loss. By then we might have the ability to mitigate the moderate atmosphere loss from solar wind in other ways.

Nukes have been suggested to be dropped in holes drilled all the way through the crust in hopes of melting the core and restart an internal dynamo of molten iron thereby creating a large enough magnetic field, planet wide. Another misuse of nuclear power is Elon Musk's desire to nuke the poles to speed up the pace of terraforming but I think it would serve a better purpose to propel rockets to Saturn and collect water from the icy rings. Or you could simply crash one of Jupiter's moon into Mars.

Another point is the northern hemisphere of Mars is much less magnetic than the southern hemisphere. If Mars at one point in the past had an internal dynamo like Earth's, rocks that formed on Mars before the dynamo shut down will remain magnetized. Any rocks that formed after the dynamo shut down, or that were heated above their Curie point (the temperature at which their magnetic domains randomize, which differs from mineral to mineral, but which is in the ballpark of a few hundred degrees Celsius) after the dynamo shut down, will not be magnetized.

Perhaps a glancing blow from a truly gigantic impact stripped away most of the northern hemisphere's crust, and since nothing is perfectly spherical, temperature differences in the crust allowed the dynamo to continue but only affecting the thicker crust areas in the south. That shows Mars could indeed lose it's atmosphere to solar wind while still having an active core and magnetic field on one half of the planet.

My favorite way would be to build a giant planet-encircling electromagnet. First, string a protective pipeline all the way around the planet; around the equator is good, but any great circle path will do, so pick whichever your surveyors and civil engineers say is most convenient, then fill the pipe with a continuous loop of superconductor cable with a correct number of windings to meet whatever magnetosphere standards you have. You will need to do this multiple times to get a high enough value of current.

Build solar panels on top of the pipeline to provide power. Once it's charged up, the superconducting coils won't require a power source to keep going (since they are, after all, made of superconductor), but you need a way to get them going in the first place, and after wards the solar panels can be used to power other things like lights and equipment for the convenience of maintenance workers.

#2) Building up the atmosphere:
Mars's CO2 atmosphere has about 1% the pressure of the Earth's at sea level and currently has a mass of 2.5 × 10^13 kilograms. This is about 1% the mass of Mt Everest. The planet Mars itself has a mass of about 11% of the Earth. If we could raise the mass of the planet it would naturally increase the mass of the atmosphere. However, we would need to find 8 additional Mars sized objects floating around nearby and crash them into Mars, plus adding mass to a nearby planet is a little tricky.

Disturbing the current orbital resonance from adding that much mass to Mars could kick Earth into the sun. One solution is you could divert some of the denser asteroids from the asteroid belt nearby and calculate their momentum such that there is no net gain in the orbital velocity of Mars when they impact its surface, sort of "driving" it along with asteroid impacts as it builds mass. I'm pretty sure this would turn the surface of Mars into a boiling sea of melted rock though and humans are not patient enough to let a cake cool down out of the oven.

Since the mass of the planet is probably harder to change than the mass of the atmosphere, we'd need to increase the mass of the atmosphere by about 200 times in order to even get close to the air pressure in the Himalayas, which as you know is way less than sea-level. So good luck getting 2 Mt Everest's worth of gas onto Mars.

It is estimated that there is sufficient CO2 ice in the regolith and the south polar cap to form a 30 to 60 kPa atmosphere if it is released by planetary warming. The reappearance of liquid water on the Martian surface would add to the warming effects and atmospheric density, but the lower gravity of Mars requires 2.6 times Earth's column air mass to obtain the optimum 100 kPa pressure at the surface. Additional volatile gases to increase the atmosphere's density must be supplied from an external source, such as redirecting several massive asteroids containing ammonia (NH3) as a source of nitrogen.

If Mars atmospheric pressure could rise above 19 kPa then a pressure suit would not be required. Visitors would only need to wear a mask that supplied 100% oxygen under positive pressure. A further increase to 24 kPa of atmospheric pressure would allow a simple mask supplying pure oxygen. This might look similar to mountain climbers who venture into pressures below 37 kPa, also called the death zone where an insufficient amount of bottled oxygen has often resulted in hypoxia with fatalities

We still need that 20% of O2 you spoke about. So next, set up solar panels that will use the energy they generate to break the Martian CO2 atmosphere into carbon and oxygen. But CO2 is really stable and carbon needs something to bond with, so where are you going to come up with a material to serve as your carbon sink? Plants, and Algae take care of the carbon levels. Drive a few ice chunks from Saturn's rings into an area to create freshwater oceans. The water will evaporate and help thicken the atmosphere. We all know how important Water Vapor is, right? At this point Water Vapor in the air would be close to that on Earth, so no need to worry about desiccation or pushing aside Oxygen in your lungs because temperature and air pressure would be normal. Now the additional 20% O2 you requested is in the Martian air!

#3) Raising the temperature:
This is easily accomplished by importing 40 million metric tons of ammonia or hydrocarbons. A personal favorite is using Sulfur Hexafluoride, excellent because it is non-toxic & inert and 6 times heavier than oxygen. What's really cool is it makes your voice sound like a vocalist for a Death Metal band, kinda the reverse of what helium does. It too can be mined from the mantel of Mars. Bringing in large amounts of ammonia from comets will serve as additional greenhouse gases to melt the polar ice caps, again pumping up the weight of the air.

Reducing the albedo of the Martian surface would also make more efficient use of incoming sunlight. This could be done by spreading dark dust from Mars's moons, Phobos and Deimos, which are among the blackest bodies in the Solar System and they are already on a collision course with the surface in a million years or so; or by introducing dark extremophile microbial life forms such as lichens, algae and bacteria. The ground would then absorb more sunlight, warming the atmosphere.

So, might the "starter" atmosphere composition look like this then, in an SE example?

      Composition {  // values in percent, at 0.21 atm pressure         O2 94.294531428571428571428571428571         CO2 5.484         Ar 0.11028571428571428571428571428571         N2 0.108         CO 0.00318285714285714285714285714286      }

All that's needed now is H2O. What percentage of H2O might be helpful, in this example?

So now we have the right gases, the right pressure and the right temperature!
Lets set up camp and name it PlutonianEmpire!
Hopefully I can smoke this cigarette on Mars without it burning up like a primer cord!

Total-Recall.jpg

Until I go on a political power trip and seize the leadership positions. Oh dear I said too much! :O

Anyways, now this has me thinking. I have a hot (temperature, not attractiveness ) custom planet with 69% Nitrogen, 27% Oxygen, 0.82% Argon, 0.029% Carbon Dioxide, and 3% water vapor at 107.303 kPa (1.059 atm). The average temperature is 89.18° F. Is this breathable? And how do I figure this out myself? I'm a bit of a layman, but I can understand equations better if they're in code(?) format (such as 3 * 4 / 4 * (10 * 4) for example)
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Gnargenox
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### Planets with potentially breathable atmospheres

Using differential equations and derivatives of functions, maybe, I think. I don't want to blow off your question, but it is something I too am very new to and I'm not really sure where to even start, but I'll give it a crack. I should defer to Watsisname, who is probably a Mensa member and as glib as any bard I've known and could probably answer this poetically in his sleep. So lets dive in!

For a crash course in Hyper-physics concerning gases, humans, and the environment I've found these possibly helpful links.

- Differential Equations: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/diff.html#c4
- Atmospheric Pressure: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hb ... n.html#atm
- The Barometric Formula: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hb ... or.html#c1
- Respiration (Inspiration & Expiration): http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hb ... ir.html#c3
- Oxygen vs CO2 diffusion rates and solubility: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hb ... ry.html#c5
- Gas Exchange in the Lungs & membrane transport by diffusion: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hb ... ir.html#c3

So, where to begin? Let us first look at ground level atmospheric pressure.
You proposed a starting atmospheric composition of: 0.21 atm pressure, consisting of the following
O2 94.2945314% = 0.1980185 partial atm
CO2 5.4840000% = 0.1151640 partial atm
Ar 0.1102857% = 0.0002316 partial atm
N2 0.1080000% = 0.0002268 partial atm
CO 0.0031829% = 0.0000067 partial atm

I hope I am starting off on the right foot here.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The ground level atmospheric pressure on a planet is not fixed by any of the standard planetary data such as gravity and temperature. It depends on just how much atmospheric gas is there and available and has not yet escaped into space. For example, Venus is a little smaller than Earth and has slightly lower gravity, yet its atmospheric pressure is about 90 times that of Earth. Once the ground level pressure is decided on, the atmospheric pressure (P) at other altitudes is governed by the following formula:

P = Po exp((-g*h) / H)

where

Po = the ground level pressure
g = the surface gravity in units of Earth gravity
h = the altitude
H = the atmospheric scale height

On Earth the scale height is 7400 meters. On other worlds it will be:

H = (Ho*Mo) / M

where

Ho = the scale height on Earth (7400 meters)
Mo = the mean molecular weight of Earth's atmosphere (29 atomic mass units) †
M = the mean molecular weight of the planet's atmosphere

† For breathable nitrogen-oxygen atmospheres, M will be close to 29. (I didn't do the math for that, I just cheated and looked it up.) Now we can figure pressures at the top of Mount Olympus or at the bottom of Hellas Crater. Plus, for later on, don't forget temperature changes with elevation.
--------------------------------------
Atmospheric Pressure:
The surface of the earth is at the bottom of an atmospheric sea. The standard atmospheric pressure is measured in various units: 1 atmosphere = 760 mmHg = 29.92 inHg = 14.7 lb/in2 = 101.3 KPa

The fundamental SI unit of pressure is the Pascal (Pa), but it is a small unit so kPa is the most common direct pressure unit for atmospheric pressure. Since the static fluid pressure is dependent only upon density and depth, choosing a liquid of standard density like mercury or water allows you to express the pressure in units of height or depth, e.g., mmHg or inches of water. The mercury barometer is the standard instrument for atmospheric pressure measurement in weather reporting. The decrease in atmospheric pressure with height can be predicted from the barometric formula. (That comes next, below)

The unit mmHg is often called torr, particularly in vacuum applications: 760 mmHg = 760 torr. For weather applications, the standard atmospheric pressure is often called 1 bar or 1000 millibars. This has been found to be convenient for recording the relatively small deviations from standard atmospheric pressure with normal weather patterns.

--------------------------------------
Baricity:
The constituents of dry air (Water Vapor will come soon, below) can be expressed as volume percentages, as you have done in your starter atmosphere, which will translate to the partial pressures out of the total atmospheric pressure. What we are trying to figure out though is how much volume a certain gas takes up at some standard temperature and pressure and how much of it is actually there. That means we need to know it's mass or how many molecules of it are in a volume of space. That leads us to the unit of measure called the mole. This is also where I fell asleep in 6th period class.

So, lets ask, how many molecules of a gas, at zero degrees Celsius and at exactly 1 atmosphere of pressure will take up a standard volume? Let's also make the standard of volume equal to say... something easy to remember, like... 22.4 liters! There, now we can measure the number of molecules of the gasses, that you suggested at the beginning, that are in the air. This is important so we know how much gets into your blood, because now we know the air's molecular density. Baricity refers to the density of a substance compared to the density of human cerebrospinal fluid. I think this is how you can determine how much Oxygen enters the blood stream through the Alveolar membranes in the lungs too.

--------------------------------------
Probably the simplest model of an atmosphere is something like this:

The density ρ, temperature T, and pressure p depend only on altitude y.
The weight g of a unit mass does not depend on y.
(Because atmospheres are not thick compared to the planet's radius).

A balance of vertical forces on a horizontal slab of area A between y and y+Δy gives

−p(y+Δy)A+p(y)A−ρgΔyA=0

which says that the pressure just balances the weight.

Divide by Δy and take the limit as Δy tends to 0 to get the basic formula p′(y)=−ρg

Where you go from here depends on what else you assume about the atmosphere.

- Example #1) constant density: p(y)=p(0)−ρgy

- Example #2) ideal gas with constant temperature: Rρ′(y)T=−ρg
and you get density decreasing exponentially with altitude, and find p(y)=p(0)e−gy/RT

- Example #3) ideal gas with temperature decreasing linearly with y (as in our troposphere): T(y)=T0−ky
Then you have a harder differential equation to solve, and find p(y)=p(0)[1−(ky/T0)]^[2−g/(kR)]

-----------------------------------
...and it's time for that cigarette!

I'm headed to the underground, fortified, radiation shielded, pressurized, warmed up, concrete bunker for a bit, back at PlutonianEmpire base camp.
I will revisit this around 3a.m. again when I have some time. I'll be looking at Water Vapor and Respiration then.

PS If you get bored until then, I think you will enjoy this solar system generator with random breathable atmospheres!
http://fast-times.eldacur.com/StarGen/RunStarGen.html
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Watsisname
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### Planets with potentially breathable atmospheres

Nice work!  If this forum had the reputation system that the old forum did then you'd get a bunch of points right now.  Also you might consider trying out the forum's LaTeX formatting if you'd like to make the equations more readable.  For example, \frac{dP}{dy}=-\rho g becomes  when enclosed with tex tags (or click the calculator-looking button.)
https://www.codecogs.com/latex/eqneditor.php is a good resource for this, too.

Xoran
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### Planets with potentially breathable atmospheres

Gnargenox wrote:
Source of the post So.., on this monster planet Oxygen is at a comfortable 1 atm

I think i read earlier in this topic that we can not survive oxygen pressure over 0.6 atm or below 0.1 atm. So too much oxygen.
But awesome planet! It looks so cool with the rings and the purple lifeforms!
Space is too big to understand, so do not try to understand.

PlutonianEmpire
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### Planets with potentially breathable atmospheres

Gnargenox wrote:
PS If you get bored until then, I think you will enjoy this solar system generator with random breathable atmospheres!
http://fast-times.eldacur.com/StarGen/RunStarGen.html

There's a better, alternative version of StarGen that supports binary stars. https://celestiaproject.net/forum/viewt ... =6&t=17134
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LordKvasir
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### Planets with potentially breathable atmospheres

Too much water vapours
Two things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity.

Xoran
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### Planets with potentially breathable atmospheres

LordKvasir wrote:
Source of the post Too much water vapours

Nope,  the problem is too little oxygen, at 0.0234 atm it is far below the neccesary amount to support human life, of which the lower limit for survival is around 0.1 atm.

But otherwise habitable
Space is too big to understand, so do not try to understand.

LordKvasir
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### Planets with potentially breathable atmospheres

Xoran wrote:
LordKvasir wrote:
Source of the post Too much water vapours

Nope,  the problem is too little oxygen, at 0.0234 atm it is far below the neccesary amount to support human life, of which the lower limit for survival is around 0.1 atm.

But otherwise habitable

I found it in IC 1001 galaxy. It is teeming with life.
Two things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity.

Roquwat
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### Planets with potentially breathable atmospheres

Look at this one:

Roquwat
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### Planets with potentially breathable atmospheres

Gnargenox
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Joined: 11 Dec 2016
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### Planets with potentially breathable atmospheres

Absolutely gorgeous, perfect amount of O2 and tolerable CO2, if you're used to heavy urban environments but it has 100x the tolerable Sulfure Dioxide leveld. Dead in an hour. You want it to be < 00002. I would say though that at that low temp (even at that lower total atm) most would condensate out as snow in places and you'd be ok.
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### Planets with potentially breathable atmospheres

How's this one? More than enough oxygen, CO2 seems borderline tolerable. The methane shouldn't be a problem since there's so much oxygen, don't know if the mix would be very flammable. H2S is slightly too high, although it shouldn't be enough to make you go blind, just some fatigue, nausea, headaches. Basically monday.

I think you could survive in this atmosphere, not very comfortable though. Freezing cold, too.

Watsisname
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