, thanks for the links.
I don't see anything peculiar in your se.log, except several localization changes
For the desert you shared as last image, thanks to coordinates, I managed to reach more or less your camera location, in the first image.
I maxed all graphic features my laptop can afford for that screenshot.
I have few considerations.
First, scorched deserts are mostly featureless in 0980, as you can see.
Your graphic chip dates back in 2013, used by AMD in integrated CPU/GPU all-in-one processors, also known as APU, mainly for middle range laptops at the time.
As such, it shares its graphic memory with the rest of the system. Unfortunately doesn't have the recommended amount of dedicated VRAM.
That said, it doesn't seem too bad, judging by your images. Take into account that SpaceEngine works mostly by using your graphic card, so that's where usually the problem is.
A more recent driver than yours, which dates back in July 2015, could give you better performances (or not). I haven't found news about that, though, and I'm afraid it's very unlikely.
As a counterproof, you could try and reach Proxima 4, the second image, to spot any difference for you computer.
You can also copy-paste the following location in your Locations window, it should place your camera in the same spot:
Place "Proxima 4"
Body "Proxima 4"
Date "2017.05.05 20:12:19.55"
Pos (-00000000000000005C7F8FF3BD64224B -0000000000000001267EDA30664D7B5F -000000000000000078C4D35CAD8EF63B)
Rot (-0.5965917120951825 0.4426473443299459 -0.5300757652548552 0.4088536910759947)
Rest assured that those videos were done at the time with PC matching the high range of recommended specifications, which is not our case.