So this isn't a very pressing issue, but I recently upgraded from a GTX 1050 Ti to an RX 580 with a Ryzen 5 2600, and there isn't a performance increase at all. I have no idea where to start but if I could have some suggestions that'd be great. And I would also like to state that on every other game, I get 60 FPS steady on Ultra settings... so I think it might be SpaceEngine. I've attached my se.log to maybe see if there is anything wrong with the logs, and from what I can see there isn't anything, hence why I'm attaching it.
Have you run it again the 2nd time since swapping out the card? Also it's a good idea to delete the cache folder.
I found every time I change GPU driver it has to build new shader cache and it performs much slower and doesn't attempt to use the available vram the first time so it needs to be run a 2nd time for it to come good or I can delete the cache first before updating the driver (would be the same as installing a new CPU) and should prevent issues.
Also another thing is you could be CPU limited in some places. You should see gains the most above a planet surface and atmosphere that have some clouds. These areas I found the most GPU bound and CPU not so bound. Loading terrain is generally always CPU and engine limited so it won't improve with a GPU much if anything at all. You will see the gains in areas mentioned and only once loading has stopped which is where the GPU takes over the majority of the work.